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CentOS 7.7安装Erlang和Elixir

2019.12.13 18:18 1189浏览
  • 本文采用MarkDown语法,文中的 波浪线和美元符 在手记后台预览正常,发布后转义符反斜杠会显示。
  • 本文重点内容与Erlang和Elixir相关,无奈慕课只提供几个标签,还不可以自定义标签,就选了CentOS

安装之前,先看一下它们的简要说明

Erlang

Erlang是一种开源编程语言,用于构建对高可用性有要求的大规模可扩展的软实时系统。它通常用于电信,银行,电子商务,计算机电话和即时消息中。Erlang的runtime系统具有对并发,分发和容错的内置支持。它是在爱立信计算机科学实验室设计的。

Elixir

Elixir是一种动态的功能语言,旨在用于构建可伸缩和可维护的应用程序。Elixir利用了以运行低延迟,分布式和容错系统而著称的Erlang VM,同时也成功地用于Web开发和嵌入式软件领域。

现在开始在CentOS 7.7 64位服务器中安装Erlang和Elixir。

安装前的准备

安装Erlang和Elixir之前,需要安装以下依赖。

yum update

yum install epel-release

yum install gcc gcc-c++ glibc-devel make ncurses-devel openssl-devel autoconf java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel git wget wxBase.x86_64

安装Erlang

由于官方存储库中的Erlang版本可能比较旧,这里我将下载并安装最新的Erlang版本。

添加Erlang官方存储库以安装最新的Erlang。

首先到**Erlang存储库页面**,根据你使用的发行版下载存储库:

由于现在在CentOS 7.7中安装Erlang,因此我将添加以下存储库。

rpm -Uvh erlang-solutions-1.0-1.noarch.rpm

使用以下命令更新存储库列表:

yum update

使用以下命令安装erlang

yum install erlang

现在最新版本的Erlang已安装完成。

验证Erlang

运行以下命令以验证是否已安装Erlang。

erl

输出示例:


Erlang/OTP 22 [erts-10.6] [source] [64-bit] [smp:1:1] [ds:1:1:10] [async-threads:1] [hipe]



Eshell V10.6  (abort with ^G)

1> 

如果看到如上的Erlang shell,表示安装成功!要关闭shell,只需按两次 Ctrl-C

在Erlang中测试示例“ hello_world”程序

创建一个名为“ hello.erl”的新文件。

vi hello.erl

添加以下代码:


-module(hello).

-export([hello_world/0]).

hello_world() -> io:fwrite("hello, world\n").

:wq 保存并关闭文件。

使用以下命令打开Erlang shell:

erl

运行以下命令,切记在每个命令的末尾添加英文点:

c(hello).

hello:hello_world().

输出示例:


[root@localhost ~]# erl

Erlang/OTP 22 [erts-10.6] [source] [64-bit] [smp:1:1] [ds:1:1:10] [async-threads:1] [hipe]



Eshell V10.6  (abort with ^G)

1> c(hello).

{ok,hello}

2> hello:hello_world().

hello, world

ok

3> 

安装Elixir

安装Elixir之前必须要先安装Erlang!

Elixir在EPEL存储库中可用,但已经过时了。为了安装最新版本,这里使用源码编译安装。

现在将Elixir从GitHub拉取到本地:

上面的命令会将最新版本拉取到当前工作目录中名为 elixir的文件夹中。

注意:最好指定版本,不然的话你安装完查看版本,可能就是如下所示一样,源码和版本号不匹配


Erlang/OTP 22 [erts-10.6] [source] [64-bit] [smp:1:1] [ds:1:1:10] [async-threads:1] [hipe]



Elixir 1.10.0-dev (ee758f9) (compiled with Erlang/OTP 22)

接下来进到 elixir 目录:

cd elixir/

运行以下命令开始编译Elixir:

make clean test

输出示例:


[root@localhost elixir]# make clean test

rm -rf ebin

rm -rf lib/*/ebin

rm -rf lib/elixir/src/elixir_parser.erl

make[1]: 进入目录“/root/elixir”

rm -rf lib/*/_build/

rm -rf lib/*/tmp/

rm -rf lib/elixir/test/ebin/

rm -rf lib/mix/test/fixtures/deps_on_git_repo/

rm -rf lib/mix/test/fixtures/git_rebar/

rm -rf lib/mix/test/fixtures/git_repo/

rm -rf lib/mix/test/fixtures/git_sparse_repo/

rm -f erl_crash.dump

make[2]: 进入目录“/root/elixir”

rm -f man/elixir.1

rm -f man/elixir.1.bak

rm -f man/iex.1

rm -f man/iex.1.bak

make[2]: 离开目录“/root/elixir”

make[1]: 离开目录“/root/elixir”

Recompile: src/elixir_utils

Recompile: src/elixir_tokenizer

Recompile: src/elixir_sup

Recompile: src/elixir_rewrite

Recompile: src/elixir_quote

Recompile: src/elixir_parser

Recompile: src/elixir_overridable

Recompile: src/elixir_module

Recompile: src/elixir_map

Recompile: src/elixir_locals

Recompile: src/elixir_lexical

Recompile: src/elixir_interpolation

Recompile: src/elixir_import

Recompile: src/elixir_fn

Recompile: src/elixir_expand

Recompile: src/elixir_errors

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_var

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_try

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_pass

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_for

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_compiler

Recompile: src/elixir_erl_clauses

Recompile: src/elixir_erl

Recompile: src/elixir_env

Recompile: src/elixir_dispatch

Recompile: src/elixir_def

Recompile: src/elixir_config

Recompile: src/elixir_compiler

Recompile: src/elixir_code_server

Recompile: src/elixir_clauses

Recompile: src/elixir_bootstrap

Recompile: src/elixir_bitstring

Recompile: src/elixir_aliases

Recompile: src/elixir

Generated elixir app

==> bootstrap (compile)

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/macro/env.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/keyword.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/list.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/macro.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/typespec.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/code.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/code/identifier.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/checker.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/locals_tracker.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/parallel_checker.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/types/helpers.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/types/infer.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/types/expr.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/types/pattern.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/module/types.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/utils.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/exception.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/protocol.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/stream/reducers.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/enum.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/map.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/inspect/algebra.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/inspect.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/access.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/range.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/regex.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/string.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/string/chars.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/io.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/path.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/file.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/system.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/cli.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/error_handler.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/parallel_compiler.ex

Compiled lib/elixir/lib/kernel/lexical_tracker.ex

make[1]: 进入目录“/root/elixir”

==> unicode (compile)

Compiling /root/elixir/lib/elixir/unicode/unicode.ex (it's taking more than 15s)

make[1]: 离开目录“/root/elixir”

==> elixir (compile)

Compiling /root/elixir/lib/elixir/lib/base.ex (it's taking more than 15s)

make[1]: 进入目录“/root/elixir”

Generated elixir app

make[1]: 离开目录“/root/elixir”

==> eex (compile)

==> mix (compile)

Generated mix app

==> ex_unit (compile)

Generated ex_unit app

==> logger (compile)

Generated logger app

Generated eex app

==> iex (compile)

Generated iex app

==> elixir (eunit)

  All 190 tests passed.



==> elixir (ex_unit)

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Finished in 81.6 seconds (47.2s on load, 34.4s on tests)

1569 doctests, 3374 tests, 0 failures, 7 excluded



Randomized with seed 847643

==> ex_unit (ex_unit)

...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Finished in 6.2 seconds (3.9s on load, 2.3s on tests)

42 doctests, 309 tests, 0 failures



Randomized with seed 541463

==> logger (ex_unit)

............................................................................................................................



Finished in 2.4 seconds (1.9s on load, 0.4s on tests)

3 doctests, 121 tests, 0 failures



Randomized with seed 211604

==> mix (ex_unit)

Excluding tags: [windows: true]



............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Finished in 158.5 seconds (12.1s on load, 146.4s on tests)

9 doctests, 611 tests, 0 failures



Randomized with seed 334499

==> eex (ex_unit)

...........................................................................................



Finished in 0.5 seconds (0.4s on load, 0.06s on tests)

5 doctests, 86 tests, 0 failures



Randomized with seed 599118

==> iex (ex_unit)

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................



Finished in 8.5 seconds (2.1s on load, 6.3s on tests)

231 tests, 0 failures



Randomized with seed 207545

[root@localhost elixir]# 

如果测试通过,则表示编译安装完成。

接下来将Elixir的bin路径添加到PATH环境变量中,否则Elixir将无法正常工作。

方法一(暂时生效)

现在运行以下命令:

export PATH="$PATH:/root/elixir/bin"

在这里,我把Elixir安装在了 /root/elixir/ 。你必须将此路径替换为你实际的Elixir安装路径。

方法二(只对当前登陆用户生效,永久生效)

vi ~/.bash_profile

默认如下:


PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin

添加后:


PATH=$PATH:$HOME/bin:$PATH:/root/elixir/bin

接下来执行 source ~/.bash_profile 使其立即生效或者 reboot 重启生效

方法三(对所有系统用户生效,永久生效)

vi /etc/profile

在文件最后添加以下两行:


PATH="$PATH:/root/elixir/bin"

export PATH

接下来执行 source /etc/profile 使其立即生效或者 reboot 重启生效

验证Elixir

要验证是否已安装Elixir,请运行:

iex

输出示例:


Erlang/OTP 22 [erts-10.6] [source] [64-bit] [smp:1:1] [ds:1:1:10] [async-threads:1] [hipe]



Interactive Elixir (1.9.4) - press Ctrl+C to exit (type h() ENTER for help)

iex(1)> 

如果你看到Elixir shell,则表示安装成功!

同样,要关闭Elixir shell,只需按两次Ctrl-C

查看Elixir版本:

elixir --version

输出示例:


Erlang/OTP 22 [erts-10.6] [source] [64-bit] [smp:1:1] [ds:1:1:10] [async-threads:1] [hipe]



Elixir 1.10.0-dev (ee758f9) (compiled with Erlang/OTP 22)



现在CentOS 7.7服务器中已成功安装并设置可工作的Erlang和Elixir开发环境,所有安装已完成!

参考链接:

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