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从零开始开发HarmonyOS鸿蒙应用——2020HDC开发者大会特性之:布局自适应

2020.09.23 09:37 4420浏览

创建应用工程

使用 DevEco Studio 创建应用工程,在菜单栏打开“File>New>New Project”,在弹出的对话框中选择java工程模板:

http://img3.sycdn.imooc.com/5f6aa6b00001e51813710906.jpg

选择好模板之后点击“Next”,在下一个界面中指定“Project Name”和“Package Name”,然后点击“Finish”即可建立工程,SDK选择API Version 3。

在“Project”窗口,打开“entry > src > main > resources > base”,右键点击“base”文件夹,选择“New > Directory”,命名为“layout”。

右键点击“layout”文件夹,选择“New > File”命名为“main_layout.xml”。

在“layout”文件夹下可以看到新增了“main_layout.xml”文件:

http://img1.sycdn.imooc.com/5f6aa6b100011c1702080215.jpg

编写自适应布局

在Java UI框架中,我们采用XML方式生命UI布局,这一点与代码中创建布局一样。本次主要是基于AdaptiveBoxLayout新的布局样式,它可以将布局在横竖屏设备上进行自适应分布排列。打开“main_layout.xml”文件,添加示例代码如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?><DirectionalLayout xmlns:ohos="http://schemas.huawei.com/res/ohos"
                 ohos:id="$+id:play_music_root"
                 ohos:width="match_parent"
                 ohos:height="match_parent"
                 ohos:left_padding="24vp"
                 ohos:right_padding="24vp"
                 ohos:orientation="vertical">
      <Text
              ohos:text_size="30vp"
              ohos:text_color="#FF000000"
              ohos:text="图库"
              ohos:top_margin="20vp"
              ohos:layout_alignment="left"
              ohos:width="match_parent"
              ohos:height="match_content"
              ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
      <DirectionalLayout
              ohos:width="match_parent"
              ohos:orientation="horizontal"
              ohos:height="match_content">
  
          <Text
                  ohos:text_size="15vp"
                  ohos:text_color="#FF787878"
                  ohos:text="用户可自定义新的图库分组"
                  ohos:layout_alignment="left|vertical_center"
                  ohos:width="match_content"
                  ohos:weight="1"
                  ohos:height="match_content"
                  ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
          <Image
                  ohos:id="$+id:remote"
                  ohos:width="match_content"
                  ohos:height="match_content"
                  ohos:right_margin="10vp"
                  ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                  ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:icon_display_off.png"/>
  
          <Image
                  ohos:width="match_content"
                  ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                  ohos:height="match_content"
                  ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:icon_more.png"/>
      </DirectionalLayout>
      <AdaptiveBoxLayout
              ohos:id="$+id:title_bar"
              ohos:width="match_parent"
              ohos:top_margin="30vp"
              ohos:height="match_content">
  
          <DirectionalLayout
                  ohos:width="match_parent"
                  ohos:margin="10vp"
                  ohos:orientation="vertical"
                  ohos:height="match_content">
  
              <DirectionalLayout
                      ohos:width="match_parent"
                      ohos:orientation="horizontal"
                      ohos:height="match_content">
  
                  <Text
                          ohos:text_size="20vp"
                          ohos:text_color="#FF000000"
                          ohos:text="推荐"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="left|vertical_center"
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:weight="1"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
                  <Text
                          ohos:text_size="15vp"
                          ohos:text_color="#FF787878"
                          ohos:text="共51张"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
                  <Image
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:icon_arrow.png"/>
              </DirectionalLayout>
  
              <Image
                      ohos:id="$+id:pic1"
                      ohos:width="match_parent"
                      ohos:height="match_content"
                      ohos:top_margin="20vp"
                      ohos:layout_alignment="center"
                      ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:pic1.png"/>
          </DirectionalLayout>
  
          <DirectionalLayout
                  ohos:width="match_parent"
                  ohos:orientation="vertical"
                  ohos:margin="10vp"
                  ohos:height="match_content">
  
              <DirectionalLayout
                      ohos:width="match_parent"
                      ohos:orientation="horizontal"
                      ohos:height="match_content">
  
                  <Text
                          ohos:text_size="20vp"
                          ohos:text_color="#FF000000"
                          ohos:text="照片"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="left|vertical_center"
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:weight="1"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
                  <Text
                          ohos:text_size="15vp"
                          ohos:text_color="#FF787878"
                          ohos:text="共32张"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:multiple_lines="false"/>
  
                  <Image
                          ohos:width="match_content"
                          ohos:layout_alignment="right|vertical_center"
                          ohos:height="match_content"
                          ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:icon_arrow.png"/>
              </DirectionalLayout>
  
              <Image
                      ohos:id="$+id:pic2"
                      ohos:width="match_parent"
                      ohos:top_margin="20vp"
                      ohos:height="match_content"
                      ohos:layout_alignment="center"
                      ohos:image_class="lazyload" src="data:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAAEAAAABCAYAAAAfFcSJAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAAARnQU1BAACxjwv8YQUAAAAJcEhZcwAADsQAAA7EAZUrDhsAAAANSURBVBhXYzh8+PB/AAffA0nNPuCLAAAAAElFTkSuQmCC" data-original="$media:pic2.png"/>
          </DirectionalLayout>
      </AdaptiveBoxLayout>
  </DirectionalLayout>

加载XML布局

在“Project”窗口中,选择“entry > src > main > java > com.example.helloworld > slice”,打开“MainAbilitySlice.java”文件。

重写onStart( )方法加载XML布局,示例代码如下:

package com.example.myapplication.slice;import com.example.myapplication.ResourceTable;import ohos.aafwk.ability.AbilitySlice;import ohos.aafwk.content.Intent;
  
  public class MainAbilitySlice extends AbilitySlice {
   
      @Override
      public void onStart(Intent intent) {
          super.onStart(intent);
          super.setUIContent(ResourceTable.Layout_main_layout); // 加载XML布局      }
   
      @Override
      public void onActive() {
          super.onActive();
      }
   
      @Override
      public void onForeground(Intent intent) {
          super.onForeground(intent);
      }
  }

运行效果:

http://img1.sycdn.imooc.com/5f6aa6b1000128cf14400698.jpg



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